Zoho Meeting Reviews

Zoho Meeting

Web conferencing tool to host online meetings and webinars.

Overall rating

4,6 /5
(810)
Value for Money
4,6/5
Features
4,5/5
Ease of Use
4,6/5
Customer Support
4,5/5

95%
recommended this app
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810 Reviews

Turner
Turner
Overall rating
  • Industry: Photography
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Excellent Service

Reviewed on 2022/02/21

Pros

This software is user intuitive, inexpensive, and provides a high quality experience for you and your clientele.

Cons

There isn't a lot that I've come to not like about Zoho Meeting, but Zoho the company as well. Great services.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

More universal, more services, more options, and great customer support.
Kelly M
Kelly M
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 10 000+ Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 8.0 /10

I like the integration with other Zoho products

Reviewed on 2022/05/11

Zoho Meeting software is great. It offers an excellent user interface that makes it easy for me and...

Zoho Meeting software is great. It offers an excellent user interface that makes it easy for me and my coworkers to work together. Zoho Meeting's video conferencing feature is lightning-fast and lag-free.

Pros

My team's use of Zoho Meeting has allowed us to constructively review the significant duties assigned by our superior. When it comes to holding important meetings, this software is both dependable and secure. Furthermore, its myriad features are a lot of fun to play around with. One of the most important aspects of the meeting is that it may be recorded thanks to the recorder.

Cons

The mobile app in Zoho Meeting has a number of notable issues that I've run upon. The app's user interface is extremely difficult to comprehend, making it difficult to use.

Manuel
Overall rating
  • Industry: Computer Software
  • Company size: 51–200 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 0.0 /10

Zoho - Don't bet on their ability to keep their platform running

Reviewed on 2020/06/11

Terrible, stay away. You probably had good experiences with their Mail or CRM, but as it turns out...

Terrible, stay away. You probably had good experiences with their Mail or CRM, but as it turns out they manage this division horrible.

Pros

API to check some aspects of the meeting is great for platform integrators such as ourselves, pricing seemed right.

Cons

After some research we selected them as our platform, we ended up buying around 10 licenses. Our business cases we had at least 3-4 meeting running every single day with different presenters. We had issues with them at beginning of each month, for some reason they decided to releases "hotfixes" to production Sunday overnight at the beginning of each month, every single time we had a "hotfix" something broke. We had instances were none of the cameras for the participants showed on screen, it took a week for them to figure out how to resolve, sometimes functionality was changed or was completely disabled between versions (presenter permissions) and the latest and the reason we decided to move after months of being customers, today (June 11, 2020) both of their mobile application crashed when people tried to access via their mobile phones. Support is just frustrating, they don't have a number to get on a call with your when you have issues, everything is being handled via email and from India, so good luck resolving any concern on your business hours, all of our support concerns were replied back with "Oh sorry, please provide meeting ID, we will resolve diligently", it was never resolved their support strategy is to let things resolve by themselves or for you to give up. Now one of the PROs was the API access as it turns they removed all documentation on how to use their APIs so good luck trying to figure out that yourself if you didn't have an integration in place.

Alternatives Considered

BlueJeans Meetings and GoTo Meeting

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

We had a meeting with 50 participants, and their mobile access was broken we just had enough with their "feature" updates.

Switched From

BlueJeans Meetings

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Their main selling point for us was the API, however this is no longer available for new customers.
Chris
Chris
Overall rating
  • Industry: Medical Practice
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Better and Cheaper than the other Platforms

Reviewed on 2020/07/24

Overall, I love Zoho meeting just as much as I love all the other zoho apps. I switched my...

Overall, I love Zoho meeting just as much as I love all the other zoho apps. I switched my technology company over a year ago and since then weve switched every business we own over to all zoho apps to manage our businesses.

Pros

Very easy to navigate and use. The webinar feature is a major bonus to an already good platform.

Cons

In order to utilize the recording feature you must be on the pro edition.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

We made the switch because we were spending so much money on Gsuite, so we switched to Zoho One which got us about 100 more features, important features too, that allowed us to run our entire business from one zoho backend instead of paying hundreds per month for Gsuite by google and the only extras we got were sheets, docs, slides, and drive. Zoho is far and wide better than google in every way, even their products are superior.

Switched From

Google Meet

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

We purchased Zoho one so meeting was included... and we are glad
Martin
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Services
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Our new online meeting tool of choice

Reviewed on 2019/09/20

Daily dev sprint meetings, external consultant management/meetings .. great sound quality and ease...

Daily dev sprint meetings, external consultant management/meetings .. great sound quality and ease of use

Pros

Great sound quality, ease of scheduling/RSVPing and very good screen sharing/switching. Ability to record as well.

Cons

Occasional meeting startup problems, not the easiest software to manage regular/recurring meetings - but workarounds available.

Waldemar
Overall rating
  • Industry: Arts & Crafts
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Wy I love Zoho Meeting

Reviewed on 2020/04/19

Quick and easy setup. Zero problems with recordings or use it.

Quick and easy setup. Zero problems with recordings or use it.

Pros

I tried many solutions to conduct business meetings, but Zoho Meeting proved to be the best.

Cons

Layout setup for end users. No translation availability for other languages than provided.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom and Google Meet

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

Much easier to use. No need to install anything on end user computer or cell phone.

Switched From

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

More flexible for my company
Milind
Milind
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

User Friendly & Convenient Online Meeting & Webinar Platform

Reviewed on 2020/08/27

Fantastic Experience and probably I will switch to Zoho platform for lifetime.

Fantastic Experience and probably I will switch to Zoho platform for lifetime.

Pros

Platform is very convenient for usage & I would recommend this to anyone who are glued to buzz making platforms.

Cons

Platform marketing is not enough and that's why most people need this platform are glued to expensive platforms which do that exacly what Zoho does.

Alternatives Considered

Demio and Zoom

Switched From

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

It's Convenience & User friendlyness is the basic reason and 2ndly it's cloud based and does not need user to download the app.
Rishi
Overall rating
  • Industry: Financial Services
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Zoho Webinar Review

Reviewed on 2023/08/02

Pros

1. Easy to Use. 2. Cost Effective.3. File Sharing feature.4. Customer Support.5. Analytics6. Uptime

Cons

1. Max limit for files is 10GB with 1 GB per file limit & have no paid/free option to increase this.2. Recording of webinars is lagging. Sometimes video & audio lag in the recording provided.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom Events and Webinars

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Cost-Effective.Easy to approach customer support.Customer support answered quickly.
Lori
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Monthly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Meeting is Super Easy

Reviewed on 2019/08/23

We perform client meetings regularly, we can schedule meetings directly in our calendar and Zoho...

We perform client meetings regularly, we can schedule meetings directly in our calendar and Zoho CRM.

Pros

Easy to use and integrates with Zoho CRM nicely

Cons

Would like the ability to customize it more.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

Integration with our CRM and much more affordable. Plus I like that our client doesn't have to download any software, they can share directly in the browser.

Switched From

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Integration with our CRM and cost is affordable
C L
C L
Overall rating
  • Industry: Graphic Design
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Meetings is best for my business remote workers

Reviewed on 2021/02/06

Overall I'm very happy and wish I could have discovered Zoho Meetings sooner before jumping from...

Overall I'm very happy and wish I could have discovered Zoho Meetings sooner before jumping from software to Software

Pros

The screen sharing and recording and saving for later. Real time collaboration even on the go with the mobile app

Cons

Features are great. Pricing could be better for small start-ups wanting to use Meetings

Chad
Chad
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: 51–200 Employees
  • Used for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Excellent Alternative for Meetings and other Business Functions

Reviewed on 2020/09/20

Communication with other users was the main reason for exploring this product and I have not been...

Communication with other users was the main reason for exploring this product and I have not been disappointed.

Pros

Zoho is an excellent alternative software to other programmes out there which provide Business Platform services. Using Zoho has been easy, as the learning curve is very flat and most users get it intuitively.

My most liked feature would be its ease of use.

Cons

When using other Zoho Products, clicking on the icon to open the Meetings platform can sometimes result in activating the product before being ready.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom and Microsoft Teams

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

The pricing for WebEx was more than I was budgeting for, considering, we did not need to use the software so often. Plus, the manual adding of persons to WebEx for each meeting was becoming repeatitive.

Switched From

Webex

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Pricing, Ease of Use, Learning Curve
Jose
Overall rating
  • Industry: Accounting
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

excellent service

Reviewed on 2022/12/01

always works excellent to make my meetings

always works excellent to make my meetings

Pros

The service works and they improve it more and more, it is very easy to get used to it

Cons

Few people know about it and it is usually difficult to make them not want other apps

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

It is included as part of my contracted services in zoho

Switched From

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

It is included as part of my contracteand a full service is much betterd services in zoho
Francisco
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

A Good Start With a Competitive Edge

Reviewed on 2021/11/20

It works when I need it, where i need it. Business Presentation and Meetings have been smoother...

It works when I need it, where i need it. Business Presentation and Meetings have been smoother compared to Microsoft Teams and Zoom.

Pros

Its Light and Easy to use. The audio is crisp and screen sharing is seamless.

Cons

It needs to improve on the integration to Zoho Mail Calendar. Would love some of the bells and whistles like background image and filter.

Alternatives Considered

Webex, Zoom, Microsoft Teams and Google Meet

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

Because the experience with Zoho is smoother.

Switched From

Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Because the experience with Zoho is smoother.
Luke
Overall rating
  • Industry: Financial Services
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Weekly for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

An Excellent Video Conferencing Software with Great Potential

Reviewed on 2023/01/23

Overall, Zoho meeting is a great application that has made a good start to rival key competitors...

Overall, Zoho meeting is a great application that has made a good start to rival key competitors like Zoom. I am hoping the customer success team and the dev team work together to iron out the common issues being raised by us the users.

Pros

First, it is cheaper compared to the one I was using. Second, it's very easy to use. Third, the support team is awesome.

Cons

There are two primary things that I personally did not like: first, clients kept complaining about the bad audio quality. They kept complaining about the very bad audio quality. Some even dropped out of the session because they were not hearing anything at all. I listened to the recording myself it was also terrible but I have no idea why. The second issue relates to the fact that Zoho meeting does not have built in annotation tools, just like Zoom does. This is a major inconvenience cos it undermines how I can interact with my audience

Wendy
Overall rating
  • Industry: Writing & Editing
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Weekly for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Easy to use, smooth, simple, perfect for freelancers

Reviewed on 2023/05/30

Overall, it's been a great experience. I have not had any issues so far.

Overall, it's been a great experience. I have not had any issues so far.

Pros

It is inexpensive, easy to set up and use with a simple interface and offers smooth, clear video and audio.

Cons

So far, I've not found anything I do not like or feel is lacking.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

Zoho was cheaper, faster and easier to set up, and gave me a better experience overall.

Switched From

Google Chat and Zoom

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

It was less expensive, faster and easier to set up, and gave me a better overall experience.
Ruhul
Ruhul
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 201–500 Employees
  • Used Weekly for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 8.0 /10

Useful product for online instant meetings.

Reviewed on 2022/08/23

The program enables communication between our personal and professional lives. Easy access, simple...

The program enables communication between our personal and professional lives. Easy access, simple sharing The continuous, extended calls without any interruptions The way it disconnects in the middle is a minor drawback, but other than that, it's fantastic.

Pros

Utilizing it is pretty simple. The cost is quite affordable. fantastic for the other person I'm talking to. Excellent and simple dashboard. I adore the fact that I can schedule a meeting or a webinar, and that the meeting includes a chat feature. In addition, I have more control over who speaks and appears on camera than the participants do. It includes Zoho One and is compatible with all Zoho calendars, booking systems, CRMs, etc. It maintains track of all of your meetings.

Cons

Sometimes it disconnects without even giving any warning. The UI needs more themes and setup options. Recurring meetings do not start in due time.

Alternatives Considered

Microsoft Teams

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

For better reputation of the vendor.

Switched From

Meetin.gs and Eventmachine meeting

Reasons for Switching to Zoho Meeting

Pricing policy.
Austin
Overall rating
  • Industry: Entertainment
  • Company size: 11–50 Employees
  • Used Daily for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 8.0 /10

Zoho meeting

Reviewed on 2023/09/03

The updates have made this better and if you haven't tried it lately then give it a second look. I...

The updates have made this better and if you haven't tried it lately then give it a second look. I like the affordable price and good video/audio.

Pros

Zoho meeting is affordable and Integrates with Zoho suite, calendar, and social media. It can blur or replace backgrounds with a virtual background. I like that more than a client seeing me sitting in my car or at home with who knows what in the background. I always worry about that. There's an app and web client.It's also got in app private chat and keyboard share. Upgraded version has cloud recording and a new feature called lock meeting that prevents people from barging in late.

Cons

I can't record video from the meeting. I try to use screen record on my device but it doesn't always work out. Transcription not reliable.

Elvis
Overall rating
  • Industry: Capital Markets
  • Company size: 11–50 Employees
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Zoho Meeting is a top class platform for virtual meetings.

Reviewed on 2023/11/27

Zoho Meeting has been a very good platform for attending and hosting online meetings. It allows us...

Zoho Meeting has been a very good platform for attending and hosting online meetings. It allows us to have very lively discussions through virtual meetings. The best thing with Zoho Meeting is that we get to attend meetings from our devices with no need to meet physically.

Pros

A trademark of Zoho Meeting is top quality video and audio which makes all virtual meetings clear and allows everyone to hear and see clearly what is being shared. It always gives communications maximum security and privacy. It is easy to use for both the host and the audience and it offers a simple to use interaction tools.

Cons

Zoom Meeting has met all my expectations and i have not gotten any drawbacks since i started using it.

Havyas
Overall rating
  • Industry: Farming
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for 6-12 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Zoho Meetings: A pride of India

Reviewed on 2022/01/23

Pros

I have been using Zoho meetings for a little over a year now and have found it to be the best video conferencing app on the market. I started with Zoho meetings because I didn't want to deal with all of the setup and technical difficulties that come with Zoom or Skype. It was simple, easy, and intuitive from the start. Plus, it's cheap as well and it does not burn a hole in your pocket.

Cons

-It's a bit buggy sometimes
-there were a few instances wherein the app just crashed

Alternatives Considered

Microsoft Teams and Google Meet

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

zoom was too costly and had a lot of bugs. There were some issues wrt privacy as well.
Prasanna
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 1 001–5 000 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Easy to Use and Affordable

Reviewed on 2021/01/11

I use it everyday for my meetings with clients across the world - (US, UK, Canada, Singapore,...

I use it everyday for my meetings with clients across the world - (US, UK, Canada, Singapore, Australia and India) - My clients and I have never had any issues.

Pros

I like how intuitive and easy to use this solution is. Its also good in terms of privacy and security.

Cons

There are features missing but its a work in progress. Software world is constantly evolving so you can can't complain.

Verified Reviewer
Overall rating
  • Industry: Marketing & Advertising
  • Company size: 2–10 Employees
  • Used Daily for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 5.0 /10

Free trial

Reviewed on 2020/04/09

Still in my experiment phase, so I need more time to understand if this is the tool that I need to...

Still in my experiment phase, so I need more time to understand if this is the tool that I need to my company needs.

Pros

Im in my free trial experience time, and right now im considering moving all the different apps that I use in my company (slack, zoom, etc) to the Zoho Suite to be easier to manage.

Cons

Still in my experiment phase, so I really dont know.

Alternatives Considered

Zoom

Reasons for Choosing Zoho Meeting

Constat performance problems with whereby

Switched From

Whereby
Gurleen
Gurleen
Overall rating
  • Industry: Information Technology & Services
  • Company size: 10 000+ Employees
  • Used Daily for 1-5 months
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Zoho Meeting - A simple way to host the webinars.

Reviewed on 2019/02/18

Zoho Meeting provides great platform for organizing the meetings as we can also add our brand logo...

Zoho Meeting provides great platform for organizing the meetings as we can also add our brand logo in emails. Manage the users and define the default setting at the time of joining the meeting. Zoho meeting have great integration with Zoho CRM, Zoho Project and Zoho Calendar. We can also control it in running session. It also encrypts using TLS 1.2 protocols SHA 256.

Pros

Zoho Meeting allows us to plan and schedule webinar meeting, and send the invitation via link. Best thing in it come with the registration form and notify the organizer to schedule for the webinar. Screen Sharing option have many useful features with it. Before starting the webinar we can select to save the webniar video. The most innovative feature Zoho added in it is webinar analytics report which help you in registrations, attendees, poll participation and many useful features with it. The Moderator can also control the access like switch presenter, mute-unmute participants, remove participants.

Cons

Zoho Meeting can be integrated with the zoho calendar and projects. Email reminder is good feature but it should come with the more features. The audio over computer should be controlled by the software with limit of dB (decibel) unit by default as we notice that sound is totally dependent on the hardware quality. The add-on Dial-in provides the best audio quality as compared to VoIP.

Betty
Betty
Overall rating
  • Industry: Hospitality
  • Company size: 1 001–5 000 Employees
  • Used Daily for 1+ year
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 10.0 /10

Consistent Communication Program

Reviewed on 2020/12/27

Zoho Meeting is a fascinating tool that brings communications closer. There is critical assistance...

Zoho Meeting is a fascinating tool that brings communications closer. There is critical assistance in terms of meetings, and this is something that we all value. Other features such as texting and file sharing are well enhanced by Zoho Meeting.

Pros

Zoho Meeting is a tool that foster discussions and communications in all companies. The software increases the level of video conferencing, hence, bringing a more diverse consultation. There is ease to use aspect from Zoho Meeting.

Cons

Zoho Meeting has everything required for meetings and communications there is incredible help and no huge expense for installation.

Response from Zoho

Hello,
Thank you for your kind words.
You can always reach us at [email protected] for any queries or suggestions.
You can also follow and reach us in twitter https://twitter.com/zohomeeting

Shruthi
Overall rating
  • Industry: E-Learning
  • Company size: Self Employed
  • Used Daily for Free Trial
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

Great online Meeting tool

Reviewed on 2023/10/26

Perfect way to conduct my virtual classroom!!!

Perfect way to conduct my virtual classroom!!!

Pros

Zoho meeting has almost all of the well known features available in market renowned meeting software such as Google meet, Teams, Zoom. There is no lag while screen sharing( complete window) unlike google meet, where i used to face too much problems.

Cons

Honestly i don't see any Cons while using Zoho meeting. If the price for the subscription( including recording) made little cheaper compared to other competitors, it will defintely attract very high customers base.

Margareth
Margareth
Overall rating
  • Industry: Market Research
  • Company size: 5 001–10 000 Employees
  • Used Daily for 2+ years
  • Review Source

Overall rating

  • Value for Money
  • Ease of Use
  • Customer Support
  • Likelihood to recommend 9.0 /10

A functional communication tool

Reviewed on 2022/11/25

A technologically advanced communication tool that helps teams have quality conversations through...

A technologically advanced communication tool that helps teams have quality conversations through video

Pros

It is a good tool to unite work teams or even provide customer service through video calls, it is quite good for sharing documents and even recording calls to maintain closer contacts digitally without being complicated or expensive

Cons

I have no problems, since its function is to connect teams and people through video conferences, something that guarantees many more professional and efficient efforts